History of Romania

history romania
The territory that forms the current Romania appeared for the first time in the history as integral part of the Roman province of Dacia,conquered by the emperor Trajano towards 106 A.D.
The majority of his inhabitants, known as the dacios, were coming from Tracia, which is located in the north of Greece.
Before the Roman conquest, the region was populated by tribes of origin dacio and Indo-European.
His most famous leader was Decébalo, although the first leader who joined the tribes dacias was Berebistas.
A part of Dacia was conquered by Trajano and his army in the year 107.

The linguistic and geo-historical analyses tend to indicate that the Rumanians
formed as a big ethnic group, both to the north, and to the south of the Danube.
The cultural influence of the Byzantine Empire is observable especially in the Rumanian churches.
Although there was no a political constant domination of the Empire in Romania. During the 3th century A.D. the incursions of the Goths began in the region, after crossing the Danube, to that they continued invaders’ later waves as hunos, Slavs and Bulgarians, who did of Dacia a constant field of battle, while the population romanizada supported the language and the Latin identity.
Towards the ends of the 13th century, the Hungarian expansion did that the population had to choose where to live, if to the north or to the east of the Carpathians, where there were founded the principalities of Wallachia and Molodavia.

Each one governed by native princes.With the defeat of the Hungarians carried out by the Ottoman Turks in 1526, Moldavia and Wallachia fell down under the Turkish domination, which lasted three centuries.
Michael the Brave, was the Prince of Wallachia, of Transylvania , and of Moldavia. Briefly,
during his reign the three principalities largely inhabited by Romanians were for the first time united under a single rule.
After his death, as vassal tributary states, Moldova and Wallachia had complete internal autonomy and an external independence, which was finally lost in the 18th century.
Due to all these events the Rumanians went to Russia in request of help.
The Russian influence became predominant after 1750 and I continue for one century.
But of to little the Russian influence was weakening and became more clear after the beginning of the war of Greek independence in 1821.

Unification and Independence:

Under the joint control of France, Great Britain, Austria and Turkey, the topic of the unification of Wallachia and Moldavia,
I happen to be the out-standing matter that was solved in 1859 when colonel Alexander Cuza was elected a common prince.
In 1861 two principalities (Moldavia and Valaquia) joined the autonomous principality of Romania, recognized by the Turkish sultan.
Alexander Cuza was forced to abdicate for the most reactionary sectors.
In 1881, the principality was raised to a kingdom and Prince Carol became King Carol I.
The 1878-1914 period was one of stability and progress for Romania.

The first and Second World war

In August 1914, when World War I broke out, Romania declared neutrality.Two years later, under the pressure of Allies, Romania declared war on Austria-Hungary. The Romanian military campaign ended in disaster for Romania, because when Transylvania was invaded it was pushed back by the Austro-Hungarian, German and Bulgarian armies who invaded the country and in less than six months, they were controlling most of his territory.
Nevertheless the victory of the Allied Forces in 1918, allowed to Romania enter again war and on November 10, they occupied Transylvania and other territories again.
By the 1920 Treaty of Trianon, Hungary renounced in favour of Romania all the claims of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy over Transylvania.
The union of Romania with Bukovina was ratified in 1919 in the Treaty of Saint Germain, and with Bessarabia in 1920 by the Treaty of Paris.
As result of the agreements of peace, the country obtained more of the double of his surface.
After the First World war the Romanian government faced diverse internal problems, between them; the constitutional reform, the agrarian reform and the delay in the economic reconstruction.
In 1923 is adopted a new constitution in which one was arranging the political emancipation of the Jews.
In the period from 1922 to 1927 governed the Liberal Party under the conduction of Bratianu.
Because this one governed in a totalitarian way, I cause a big opposition to his government on the part of the peasants, all this produced a big political tension.
In 1928 the opposition to Bratianu took as a result the arrival to the power of the National Rural Party, under the guidance of Maniuon, that became a prime minister and supported the return of the crown prince to Bucharest in 1930, being proclaimed as king with the name of Carol II.

Romania faced an economic crisis that was worsening. In this period, under the reign of Carol II, there arose a strong fascist movement, the “Guard of Iron”,
also to the new constitution that was restricting the democracy and was proscribing to the political parties.
Rumania polisy
These measures were taken in response to the diverse declarations against the fascist movement.
In 1940 the Soviet Union forced to Romania to transfer Besarabia and the north of Bucovina, whereas the Germany Nazi granted the north of Transylvania to Hungary and the south from Dobruja to Bulgaria.
The authoritarian King Carol II abdicated in 1940, succeeded by the National Legionary State, in which power was shared by Ion Antonescu and the Iron Guard.
Ion Antonescu managed to finish with the Iron Guard, in 1941.

During the Second World war the country joined the Axis and several anti-Semitic measures were taken.
During the war, Romania was the most important source of oil for Nazi Germany, which attracted multiple bombing raids by the Allies.
By means of the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, Romania recovered Bessarabia and northern Bukovina from the Soviet Russia, under the leadership of general Ion Antonescu.
At first military victories were obtained, in the Oriental Front, in collaboration with the Germans.
But from 1943 the situation deteriorated, as a whole with the defeat of the battle of Stalingrado on the part of the German army.
All this motivated a popular insurreción that demolished the dictatorship of Antonescu on August 23, 1944.

After the coup d’état, Miguel I occupied the Rumanian throne, but Romania would enter the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union, and Miguel will be forced to abdicate in 1947,
Romania was proclaimed a Republic, and remained under direct military and economic control of the USSR until the late 1950s.

Socialism and Communism

In 1947 the Popular Republic of Romania was proclaimed and Constantin Ion Parhon assumed the power.
In 1952, it was happened by Petru Groza, who governed until 1958, this one proceeded to eliminate the multipartisan opposition to the Communist Rumanian Party.
Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej followed Petru Groza, during the government of the latter,
it began a period of certain independence with regard to the Soviet Union.
During his government the Rumanian nationalism re-arose.
In 1965 it was elect Nicolae Ceausescu, this one had a politics that was pleading to the national sovereignty, inside the socialism, so that the first years of his politics, were favorable.
As for the internal thing, it supported the communist structure against his dissidents, so that the economy, although it was very well started having symptoms of a deterioration, as the rest of the countries in block.

In the decade of 1980 all the resources were already absent, given to the implementation of a political piece of news to finish with the foreign debt.
What produced that some resources escenciales were restricted such as the meat, milk, eggs or current water and electrical light.
What gave place to strong protests and declarations that were some of the motives of the fall of the government. In response to the untenable situation of the country,
the Rumanian Revolution of 1989 exploded in Timisoara and later in Bucharest and in the rest of the important cities in December, 1989.

Nicolae Ceausescu had lost the support of the army and of the political class, from what these abdicated it in the Christmas of 1989, it was judged together with his wife and executed.
Then Corneliu Manescu and Ion Iliescu put themselves at the head of the country up to the first days of 1990.

After the fall of Ceausescu, the National Salvation Front (FSN), led by Ion Iliescu, took partial multi-party democratic and free market measures.
This one gained popularity in the rural way for his leader’s image since he was the driver of the Revolution, but this popularity was not equal in the urban way, there it was very much minor.
Romania began a very hard transitional period since they change of an economy completely directed by the State to an economy of free market, all this economic crisis brought prepared a strong wave of emigration especially on the part of the Rumanian young people, who mostly went away to countries as Spain and Italy.
In 1990 the first democratic free elections were celebrated and Ion Iliescu was ratified in his charge and re-elected in 1992, for a period of four years.